Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an epidemic that threatens the health of the
Sleep-wake rhythm disorders are common in an aging population. Their link to
diabetes has recently been established
More than a decade passes by in many individuals from first risk factors to
overt type 2 diabetes
Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes with associated morbidity and mortality make this one of the major health issues in the European Union in the 21st century, which already accounts for healthcare expenditures of EUR 80 billion, representing 10% of total healthcare expenditures in Europe.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the combination of obesity/overweight and the lack of ability of insulin to help tissues make use of blood sugar (glucose). This is called insulin resistance. Insulin resistance results in a compensatory overactivity of the pancreas, the hormonal gland that makes insulin. As long as the pancreas can carry on producing high amounts of insulin, blood sugar is “normal” and this state of so-called pre-diabetes remains undiagnosed. At the same time, however, high insulin levels in blood lead to increasing body weight and aggravation of obesity, which in turn accelerates the advance of insulin resistance – a circuit which will advance itself until, one day, the pancreas fails to keep on producing high insulin levels. This is the time when the insulin deficiency syndrome – diabetes mellitus – becomes clinically overt with elevated blood glucose. However, preventive measures will now be too late to have a major impact on the disease course.